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Carbon has been known since ancient times in the form of soot, charcoal, graphite and diamonds.
Ancient cultures did not realize, of course, that these substances were different forms of the same element French scientist Antoine Lavoisier named carbon and he carried out a variety of experiments to reveal its nature.
Graphene has a 2D crystal structure.(Fullerenes can sometimes exist in amorphous form.) Carbon can also exist in an amorphous state.
Many allotropes commonly described as amorphous, however, such as glassy carbon, soot, or carbon black usually have enough structure to not be truly amorphous.
Carbon has the highest melting/sublimation point of all the elements and, in the form of diamond, has the highest thermal conductivity of any element.Tennant also proved that when equal weights of charcoal and diamonds were burned, they produced the same amount of carbon dioxide.Although it had been previously attempted without success, in 1955 American scientist Francis Bundy and coworkers at General Electric finally demonstrated that graphite could be transformed into diamond at high temperature and high pressure.Lavoisier noted the overall weight of the jar was unchanged and that when it burned, the diamond had combined with oxygen to form carbon dioxide.He concluded that diamond and charcoal were made of the same element – carbon.